Jan
10

Natapoff: Shedding Light On Snitches

Alexandra Natapoff's new book on the use of informants in criminal proceedings is a must read. Snitching: Criminal Informants and the Erosion of American Justice, (New York University Press, 2009) It is not that she tells us anything new and really startling; what impresses is that she has managed to pull together a wealth of scholarship and practical insight in a one volume. What's more, she offers sensible suggestions about how to reform the use of confidential informants.

I am generally ambivalent about the contributions of the legal academy to the day-to-day practice of law. Practice conceived isn't theory relieved, I keep telling myself. What can a professor tell a student about standing in a hate-soaked room pleading for a fair trial? The gritty reality of a courtroom doesn't often find its way beneath the fingernails of the chalkboard set.

Somehow Natapoff manages to combine scholarly acument with the solid sense of a practical litigator. She worked briefly as a federal public defender, before joining the faculty of the Loyala Law School in Los Angeles. She has not forgotten what she saw in courtrooms.

Snitches, rats, finks, scum, there are many names for those who trade what they are willing to say for favorable consideration from a prosecutor. Law enforcement depends on the "cooperation" of witnesses from all walks of life. But the information received from so-called cooperators is often unreliable; the Innocence Project and the students at Northwestern University, have demonstrated time and time again through the use of DNA evidence that innocent men and women are convicted due to unreliable chatter.

Natapoff surveys the use of snitches in a variety of contests ranging from routine narcotics case, to white collar investigations, to infiltration of terrorists groups. In each case she notes the tendency of power to become opaque. The lack of transparency in the recruitment, management and use of informants has created an unreviewable and secret parallel universe that cannot be challenged effectively in a court of law. When, for example, is the last time a judge demanded that a police officer with a warrant affidavit bring with him to court the "CI" he allegedly relied upon to support his request for permission to search a person's home? I suspect that more than a few warrants are supported by phantom declarants.

Her calls for reform on solid: She rightly questions whether jury instructions cautioning jurors to use special care in weighing the credibility of snitches are really enough. Ought not there be reliability hearings to determine whehther a snitch's testimony has any probative value? And why not require some sort of corroboration in any case involving a snitch?

This latter proposal hit a nerve. The case I am trying now involves the testimony of several jailhouse informants. They claim my client confessed his role in the kidnap, rape and murder of a 15-year-old girl in 1996. But there is nothing to corroborate this testimony. My client denies any involvement at all. Indeed, in this murder case, the state cannot prove murder at all, given the absence of a body. My client faces trial based on the say-so of inmates a decade and one-half after the so-called facts. How much of what these man report my client said is mere recycled gossip? The jury may never know: Moved by act hunger, that narrative instinct we all possess to impose a structure with a beginning, middle and end to every experience, isn't there a real danger the jury will credit the snitchs' chatter just to put an end to the nightmare that occurs when a child disappears?

Natapoff also suggests creation of an independent authority to screen and finance the use of informants favorable to the defendant in a criminal case. Why should the state be the only party at trial armed with the finances and the means to reward cooperating witnesses? She writes:

"The use of criminal informants is inherently lopsided: a prosecutor can reward an informant source with lenience or money, while a defendant who tries to pay or otherwise reward a potential witness will be accused of bribery or witness tampering. ... To remedy this imbalance ... establish[] a mechanism for rewarding exculpatory testimony, in essence, for creating defense informants."

Amen, I say. This professor gets high marks for nailing just what is wrong with the use of snitches. Yet another reason for the creation of a universal public defender system so that any American accused of a crime, whether poor, middle class or wealthy can match the resources of the state.

I placed a call to Professor Natapoff this morning. I am hoping she will agree to serve as an expert in my case. Juries need to know what she has to say. I suspect the state will object, however. And why shouldn't it? Right now it has a monopoly on the secret manipulation of evidence. Such secrecy is the nectar of tyranny.

Professor Natapoff also has a blog site devoted to snitching. Check it out: http://www.snitching.org/
Comments (1)
Posted on January 10, 2010 at 9:44 am by Henry Berry
I can attest to the reality of what Pattis discuss...
I can attest to the reality of what Pattis discusses and raises alarms about in this posting. In my case, Fairfield County State's Attorney's tried to fabricate a case out of thin air starting with lies by some unknown informant to obtain an illegal wiretap on my Black Rock, Bridgeport, apartment. This wiretap was followed by several entrapment attempts; which were in turn followed by witness intimidation including threats of physical injury when I started to expose the criminal scam as a citizen investigative journalist. What I had done to incur the state's attorney's ire was file a criminal complaint substantiated by incontrovertible evidence regarding the theft of thousands of dollars of medical films of mine meant for an operation on my neck left with a prominent Bridgeport law firm. The abuse of informants and the crimes of law-enforcement officials goes beyond even what is outlined in this post.

The former Fairfield County State's Attorney Jonathan Benedict was ruled in default by a judge in a civil trial I undertook for invasion of privacy and other claims at the Bridgeport Superior County. Benedict ignored the judge's order to let me see the documents regarding the wiretap I had asked for in discovery. So I never was able to find out who the informant was or who had given false information on me which, had I made any innocent misstep, would have resulted in an arrest and jail term for me presumably on drugs charges. And I've never had anything to do with illegal drugs, and very little ever to do with legal drugs for that matter. But with an informant, the state's attorneys were able to put into motion many individuals and considerable resources to attempt to arrest and defame an individual they knew was innocent of any crime.

I have written a book covering much of this story; and I have a standing offer to any lawyer, accused individual, or anyone else interested in an affidavit, deposition, or court testimony on my experiences and what I have uncovered in my reflections on my experiences and my investigations.
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About Norm Pattis

Norm Pattis is a Connecticut based trial lawyer focused on high stakes criminal cases and civil right violations. He is a veteran of more than 100 jury trials, many resulting in acquittals for people charged with serious crimes, multi-million dollar civil rights and discrimination verdicts, and scores of cases favorably settled.

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I believe that the state is a necessary fiction and that failing to combat it is the first step toward tyranny.
– Norm Pattis

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Nothing in this blog should be considered legal advice about your case. You need a lawyer who understands the context of your life and situation. What are offered here are merely suggested lines of inquiry you may explore with your lawyer.

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